How to accelerate the entry of the young people on the labour market? A study on the “World tendencies of the young people employment” that the International Labour Office has published draws up a pessimistic report on the situation of the younger than 25 years old people, regarding the labour market.
There is a world deficit of decent employment opportunities: a young person out of three searched for work without success and gave up completely in the search of employment or started to work for an income lower than the poverty line of 2 dollars per day, note the authors of the report at the end of their work.
Of course, the situations differ largely according to the geographical areas in review. Sub-Saharan Africa thus shows a strong activity ratio for the young people, but it concentrates also the majority of the young poor workers, superior to that of South Asia. And even if the situation has improved during the last ten years, one nevertheless counts in these two areas 4 young people out of 10 who work and who remain poor, with less than 1 dollar per day to live.
The developed countries are confronted with another problem, linked in particular to education. The International Labour Office notes indeed that the lengthening of the educational process results mechanically in a later entry on the labour market… when this entry occurs. However, a person who does not succeed in finding an employment is likely to rock in the category of the “discouraged young people” who are neither at school, nor employed. This is a vulnerable category confronted with a difficult process of rehabilitation in the labour market and which is likely to feel useless.
In Central Europe, this category represents 33,6 % of the people less than 25 years old. It goes down to 13,4 % in the developed economies and the European Union. The International Labour Office prevents that for the economy, the presence of discouraged workers represents a wasting of human resources and potential of production. Moreover, the inactivity constitutes not only one wasting of the capacities but also a risk for the companies. On this point, only the developed countries and the European Union draw their pin from the play.
These two zones are indeed the only ones in the world to have recorded a strong fall of their rate of unemployment of the young people during ten last years.
From 1995 to 2005, it descended from 15,2 % to 13,1 %. a rate which is “only” 2,3 times higher than the adults’ unemployment rate, whereas in the majority of the areas the young people were three times more likely to be unemployed than the adults. On the whole, the International Labour Office counts in the world 85 million unemployed young people, to which 300 million young poor workers and 20 million discouraged young people are added. To fully benefit from the productive potential of the young people, the International Labour Office estimates at 400 million the number of decent employment necessary. Therefore, the creation of decent jobs for the young people must have priority to transform into a positive development force.